There are multiple types and grades of thermocouple wire. Each type of thermocouple wire has a specific combination of metal alloys. This combination is what defines the type of thermocouple. For example, a type K thermocouple is made when a wire of Nickel-Chromium is welded to a wire of Nickel-Alumel. The grade of the wire is dependent not only on the combination of alloys used, but also on the purity of those alloys.
How are insulated thermocouple wires identified?
The insulation on thermocouple wire is color coded for identification. Common guidelines include that the negative lead in insulated thermocouple wire is red. The positive lead has the color of the thermocouple as well as the overall color of insulated extension grade wire. The outer jacket of thermocouple grade wire is typically brown. For high temperature wire, it is common to have a color coded tracer thread in the white material. For information on usable temperature ranges for the insulation see the “Wire Insulation Identification” table. Other tables at this link are also available for information on the metals used in the thermocouple wire, insulation color codes, and more.
What is the difference between Standard and Special Limits of Error (SLE) wire?
Standard vs SLE (special limits of error) wire has to do with accuracy of the wire. SLE wire is the same as standard wire with the added feature of having a little better accuracy spec. Accuracy of thermocouples vary with thermocouple types. e.g. For the lower temperature ranges type T, composed of copper wire in the positive lead and constantan (copper-nickel mixture) for the negative, has good accuracy specifications. Additional information on accuracy.
What is the difference between Thermocouple grade and Extension grade wire?
Thermocouple grade wire is wire that is used to make the sensing point (or probe part) of the thermocouple. Extension grade wire is only used to extend a thermocouple signal from a probe back to the instrument reading the signal. The extension grade wire typically will have a lower ambient temperature limit in which the wire may be used. Namely, it may pass a signal representing a higher temperature as received from the probe, but the wire physically may not be exposed to higher temperatures. Thermocouple wire may be used as extension wire, but extension grade wire may not be used in the sensing point (or probe part) of the thermocouple. Part numbers for extension wire typically begin with an “EX” prefix.
What is the maximum length of thermocouple wire?
There are many factors that can impact the usable length of a thermocouple. As a guideline, under 100 feet with 20 AWG or thicker wire in an area free of electromagnetic interference usually is fine. Two of the main factors in determining useable thermocouple length are total loop resistance and preventing electrical noise getting into the signal. Because different thermocouple wires are made of different materials, the resistance will vary based on the type as well as the wire diameter and length. The allowable loop resistance is affected by the input resistance of the amplifier circuit to which it is attached. But as a guideline, typically the objective is to keep the total loop resistance under 100 ohms. Loop resistance is determined by multiplying the length in feet by the resistance per double feet (remember 1 foot length of run includes 1 foot from each of the two t/c wires) as shown in “Resistance Vs Wire Diameter” table for thermocouple type and gauge. Remember in your calculations to include the probe (when used/applicable) in addition to the wire length. The second major factor in running a thermocouple wire is to keep it away from any electromagnetic fields. Thermocouple wire creates a low voltage signal and should not be run near power wires, motors, etc. To help minimize noise pickup, a metal over braid or twisted shielded wire is commonly used. We are the leading manufacturer because of our own brand Maltec-T which is our company most well known brand in Malaysia and South East Asia. For more information visit our website.