Industrial heaters are used to covert energy from a fuel or energy source to thermal energy in a system, process stream or closed environment. The process by which thermal energy is transformed from an energy source to a system can be described as heat transfer.
Methods of Heat Transfer
There are three fundamental methods of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation. Industrial heaters use one or a combination of these three methods to transfer heat.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of thermal energy across a solid object. When an energy source is directly applied to a solid object the molecules in that substance start to vibrate at a higher frequency and transfer that energy to the adjoined molecules.
Convection is a method of heat transfer where thermal energy is carried through a fluid or medium. The fluid or medium creates a convection current that is either forced or free flowing. In forced flow convection the medium is circulated by either a fan or pump. In free flowing systems the convection cycle is solely dependent on temperature changes and density gradients.
Thermal radiation is an indirect method of heat transfer. In this method thermal energy is transferred through electro-magnetic waves. Since these waves have negligible mass the transfer of heat requires no physical contact between substances and the waves are free to pass through empty space until they make contact with a physical substance. When the waves are absorbed we experience an excited state and the affected molecules begin to vibrate at a higher frequency. The resultant effect of absorption and vibration frequency is heat or more fundamentally, an increase in temperature.
The temperature of the heat source can be determined by the peak wavelength emitted as described by Wein’s displacement law:
Almost all industrial heaters that use thermal radiation as a mode of heat transfer emi
t radiation in the infrared spectrum.
Classification of Industrial Heaters
There are many different types of industrial heaters and they are available in many different shapes, sizes, and configurations. The specific type of industrial heater can be described by its application, medium, physical properties, fuel source or other specific type of heater.
Common types of heaters described by their application include: circulation heaters, duct heaters, immersion heaters.
Heaters by Application
Circulation Heaters Circulation heaters are used to heat moving, flowing, or circulating fluid streams. Fluid flows through the heater, which transfers heat to the stream.
Duct Heaters Duct heaters are used to heat moving gas streams. They are installed in the middle of a moving air / gas stream in order to heat the air as it moves through the heater.
Immersion Heaters Immersion heaters are used in applications that require immersing the heater in the substance to be heated.
Common types of heaters described by the medium that they are used to heat include: air heaters and water heaters.
|Heaters by Medium|
|Air heaters are devices used to heat air. They include forced air products as well as all types of radiant and space heaters.|
|Water heaters are gas, oil or electric-fired devices used to heat water for residential and commercial use.|
Common types of industrial heaters that are described by their physical properties which includes flexible heaters.
|Heaters by Physical Properties|
|Flexible heaters are devices that can be molded to the shape of a heated object.|
Common types of heaters described by their fuel source by electric heaters.
Heaters by Fuel Source
|Electric heaters generate heat by passing an electric current through a high-resistance material.|
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Note: Images may vary but the products are similar. Used for knowledge purposes.